First we should take into account that Putin is not an ideologue. His politics is strictly pragmatic, and is an accumulation of neo-medieval, orthodox revivalist, neo-capitalist and fascistic ideas.
During the Yeltsin Era, the Russian Federation witnessed a systemic breakdown of authority at the federal level to become in a situation similar to China during the early phase of the Civil War (c. 1921-1931) in the case of the highest authority at the local level being the regional oligarch and not the central administration. Thus, a chaotic and neo-tsarist phase in the Russian economy grew, in parallel with its financialization, resulting in the impoverishment of large sectors of the populace who were previously insured under the Soviet centralized system.
In 2001 Vladimir Putin came to power and began to gradually restructure the Russian government at the federal level. Increasing the level of administrative coordination and economic cooperation between the federal regions, he was able to centralize federal control and keep in check the growing power of the oligarchs who were seen as unpatriotic parasitic forces by many Russians.
He also oversaw a revival of the Russian Orthodox Church which had been dormant during the Soviet and Yeltsin Eras, to the extent that it could provide a check against the capitalist class.
Thus, by balancing the Church and Oligarchy, Putin has amassed immense power which would be otherwise impossible for a Stalin-like dictator in modern Russia (indirectly rather than directly).
If we take the Trinity as inspiration for a Russian theory of Divine Right to justify Putin’s rule, we can see the following:
The Mind of Russia = God the Father = Putin’s Administration
The Body of Russia = God the Son = The Business Class
The Soul of Russia = God the Holy Spirit = The Orthodox Church
These three work together to ensure the emergence of Russia as an a-Western (rather than anti-Western) power seeking equality rather than subservience with other great powers.
According to the pre-Filioque Orthodox Nicene Creed, the Holy Spirit precedes from the Father only and not from the Son (unlike in the Catholic West, which allowed the emergence of the bodily-ruled Capitalist Class), which then means that the Business and Church classes are in a position of equality under the protection of the central administration.
Since the Holy Spirit precedes from the Father only, it is only the central government which has authority over the Russian Church, and therefore it can expand at will unhindered by capitalist interests, as it would otherwise be in any other capitalist country.